The simplicity of gas phase properties arises mainly from the large separation of the gas molecules from each other. In a solid or liquid, the molecules are close together, so they can interact strongly with each other. Physical properties of solids and liquids depend on how the molecules interact with each other, which in turn, depend of their chemical make-up. For this reason, each liquid or solid substance will have its own unique properties. Because gas molecules are, on average, quite well separated from one another, their interaction with each other is very small. In many cases, we can treat the interaction as if it were exactly zero. No real gas actually satisfies this assumption, but most come close under a wide range of conditions. A gas that actually has zero molecular interaction is purely hypothetical and is called an ideal gas.
Most of the volume "occupied" by a gas is actually empty space -- the space between the gas molecules. The volume occupied by the molecules themselves is generally a very small fraction of the total gas volume. For the hypothetical gas we call an ideal gas, the molecular volume is considered to be exactly zero -- that is, the molecules of this gas are considered to be point masses. They have mass but occupy no volume.
At all temperatures above zero Kelvin, molecules are in motion. The average kinetic energy of the molecules increases with temperature -- that is, the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are moving. In a gas, each molecule moves in a straight line until it either collides with another gas molecule or collides with the wall of its container. In either case, it simply bounces off and continues in motion is a straight line in another direction until the next collision. The pressure exerted by a gas in a container is caused by the collission of the gas molecules with the container walls.
The gas parameters we will be concerned with, and their algebraic symbols, are as follows:
X | Y |
1 | 1.20 |
2 | 2.40 |
3 | 3.60 |
4 | 4.80 |
The data in this table shows a direct proportionality. If you compare the X coordinate for the first two entries in the table, you find X=1 for the first one and X=2 for the second one. The X increases by a factor of 2 on going from the first entry to the second entry. If you compare the Y coordinate for these same two entries, you discover the same thing. Note that Y=1.20 for the first entry and Y=2.40 for the second entry. On going from the first entry (row of the table) to the second one, both the X and Y double.
An equation you can use to test a set of data to see if it is a direct proportionality is the following:
X_{1}
Y_{1}
_{ }____ _{
}=_{ }
_____
X_{2 } Y_{2}
You test the data by designating one ordered pair as pair # 1 (having
coordinates X_{1} and Y_{1}) and another ordered pair as
ordered paired # 2 (having coordinates X_{2} and Y_{2})
and substituting the corresponding values into the equation. If the
left and right sides are equal, you have a direct proportionality.
Another test for a direct proportionality is to graph the data. Data
which has a direct proportionality will plot as a straight line that passes
through the origin of the coordinate plane.
Mathematically, we say that Y is proportional to X and we write Y a
X.
We can make a proportionality into an equation by changing the proportionality
sign (a) to an equality sign (=) and multiplying
the right hand side by a constant, called a "constant of proportionality".
When this is done, we have Y = kX, where the symbol k has been used to
represent the constant. We can solve for the numerical value of the
constant k which characteizes the set of data by substituting any of the
ordered pairs from the set into the equation. Algebraically, we can
re-arrange the equation Y = kX to k = Y/X. Then if we substitute
the first of the ordered pairs into the equation, we have k = 1.20/1 =
1.20. Therefore, the complete equation is Y = 1.20X. We could
then use the equation to supply other ordered pairs that "belong" to this
set of data. For example, if X = 5 then Y = 1.20(5) = 6.00.
Thus, the ordered pair (5, 6.00) also belongs to this set of data, though
it was not originally included in the table of numbers used for the graph.
An "everyday life" example where you might encounter data that shows a
direct proportionality is buying something from a store. In this
case, let each item cost $1.20. Then X represents the number of such
items purchased and Y is the total purchase price. The physical meaning
of the constant in this example is the unit price.
X | Y |
1 | 120 |
2 | 60 |
3 | 40 |
4 | 30 |
The data in this table shows an inverse proportionality. If you compare the X coordinate for the first two entries in the table, you find X=1 for the first one and X=2 for the second one. The X increases by a factor of 2 on going from the first entry to the second entry. If you compare the Y coordinate for these same two entries, you discover that Y decreases by a factor of 2 on going from the first ordered pair to the second one.
An equation you can use to test a set of data to see if it is a direct proportionality is the following:
X_{1}
Y_{2}
_{ }____ _{
}=_{ }
_____
X_{2 } Y_{1}
You test the data by designating one ordered pair as pair # 1 (having coordinates X_{1} and Y_{1}) and another ordered pair as ordered paired # 2 (having coordinates X_{2} and Y_{2}) and substituting the corresponding values into the equation. If the left and right sides are equal, you have an inverse proportionality.
An inverse proportionality plots as a curve. The data in this
example yields the following graph:
Graphing data is not the best way to determine if an inverse proportionality exists, because there are many different shapes of curves in which data can plot, and it is difficult to tell just by looking if your data has the correct shape of curve to be considered an inverse proportionality. The graphical test is more useful for a direct proportionality, because it is easy to tell whether on not a set of points all fall on a straight line. We must also remember that the straignt line defined by the set of points must pass throught the origin of the graph (X = 0, Y = 0). If not, the data merely increase (or decrease) together, but not by the same factor. A true direct porportionality plots as a line passing through the origin.
For inversely proportional data like that being considered here, we can write Y a 1/X. As before, we can make this an equation by changing the proportional sign (a) to an equality sign(=) and multiplying on the right hand side by a constant. This gives us Y = k/X. Rearranging this to k = XY and substituting the values from the first ordered pair, we have k = (1)(120) = 120. This is the value of the constant that is characteristic of this particular set of data. We now have the complete equation for this set of data. It is Y = 120/X. With this equation, we can find other ordered pairs that belong to this set. For example, if X = 5, we have Y = 120/5 = 24. Thus, the ordered pair (5, 24) belongs to this set of data, although it was not included in the table used to construct the graph.
If you guessed 6 atmospheres, you got it right. When I give a "chalk talk" on this topic, my students usually see the relationship -- I bet you did too. In predicting the new pressure, you have recognized that that the relationship between pressure and volume (at constant temperature and number of moles) is an inverse proportionality. The volume has decreased by a factor of 2 (from 2 liters to 1 liter) so the pressure must increase by a factor of 2. This increases it from 3 atmospheres to 6 atmospheres.
Mathematically, then, we have that P a 1/V. This is the most fundamental statement of Boyle's Law. In words, Boyle's Law states that for a fixed amount (i.e. number of moles) of gas, at constant temperature, the volume occupied by the gas in inversely proportional to the applied pressure. We can make an equation out of this in the manner described in section 3. Changing the proportionality to an equality and multiplying by a constant, we have P = k/V. This can be re-arranged to give PV = k. The constant in this equation is not a true universal constant. In general, when a proportionality (either direct or inverse -- this is true of both) is made into an equation, the constant actually depends on those parameters which affect the system but have been left out of the equation.
Clearly, the temperature affects the system, because if we were to heat the 2 liter sample (arrangement on the left in the picture) without letting it expand (for example, by holding the piston and not letting it move) the pressure would increase. Also, if we were to pump additional gas into the cylinder (through a gas inlet valve not shown in the picture) the pressure would increase. Thus, the "constant" we have in the equation PV = k actually changes as T and n change.
That is, k = f(T, n). This is the mathematical way of saying that "k is a function of T and n". You may have seen this notation used in one of your math classes. Have you ever seen someone write Y = f(x)? Well, that is the sense in which I have written k = f(T, n). The only difference is that it depends on 2 variables instead of only 1.
Since k depends on T and n, there is little point in trying to calculate its value. We could, of course, obtain a value for the particular arrangement shown in the picture by substituting values in the equation, just as we did with our example data in section 3. However, this value of the constant would not apply to a new sample with a different number of moles of gas, or a sample at a different temperature. What we will do instead is agree to only use this equation to deal with gas calculations where both the temperature and the number of moles of gas are not changing.
The gas will start out in a state of existence we will call "STATE 1". Then, the gas will undergo a process that changes its pressure and volume, but without changing its temperature or the number of moles of gas. After the process is complete, the gas finds itself in a state of existence we will call "STATE 2". Because we have not changed the temperature or number of moles, we can apply Boyle's Law. When the gas is in STATE 1, its pressure is symbolized by P_{1} and its volume by V_{1}. Similarly, in STATE 2, the pressure of the gas is symbolized by P_{2} and the volume by V_{2}. Now apply Boyle's Law, in the form PV = k, to each state separately.
STATE 1: P_{1}V_{1} = k
STATE 2: P_{2}V_{2} = k
Now recall that k only depends on T and n, and neither of those has changed in going from STATE 1 to STATE 2. Therefore, the value of k must be the same in both states. This means that
P_{1}V_{1} = P_{2}V_{2}
This is the 2-point form of Boyle's Law. It allows you to relate the pressures and volumes of a gas in two states that are related through some process in which the temperature does not change (i.e. isothermal) and in which the number of moles do not change.
Suppose we have 2 liters of gas at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. If we heat this gas (allowing it to expand during the heating process) to 600 Kelvin, what do you suppose its volume will be?
If you said 4 liters, you got it right. In making this estimate, what you have done is recognized that the relationship between volume and Kelvin is a direct proportionality. The Kelvin temperature was doubled in the heating process, so you concluded the volume must have doubled also.
Mathematically, then, we have V a T. This is the most fundamental statement of Charles' Law, which in words, states that for a fixed amount (number of moles) of gas at constant pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature. As introduced in section 4.1, we can get an equation out of this by changing the proportionality sign (a) to an equality sign (=) and and multiplying on the right hand side by a constant. This gives V = kT. As we have seen, the constant is often not a universal constant, but is actually a function of those variables that are not represented in the equation. In this case, the pressure (P) and the number of moles (n) do not appear so k = f(P, n). Although we could find the numerical value of the k for the apparatus shown above, there is little point in doing so, since the k will be different each time we do the experiment under a different pressure, or use a different number of moles of gas. We will take an approach similar to that in section 4.1: we will agree to only use the equation for those gas calculations in which the pressure and number of moles are not changing.
Before the process (in the above example, heating) takes place, the gas is in a state of existence we will call "STATE 1". In this state, we refer to its volume as V_{1} and its Kelvin temperature as T_{1}. Then, after the process, the gas is in a state of existence we call "STATE 2". Here, we refer to the volume as V_{2} and Kelvin temperature as T_{2}. We can re-arrange the equation V = kT to get V/T = k. Now we can apply this equation separately to STATE 1 and STATE 2.
STATE 1: V_{1} / T_{1} = k
STATE 2: V_{2} / T_{2 }= k
Recall that k depends only on P and n. Since neither of these variables changed on going from STATE 1 to STATE 2, the two k's are the same. Therefore:
V_{1} / T_{1} = V_{2} / T_{2}
This is the 2-point form of Charles' Law. It is used to relate the volumes and temperatures in two states that are connected by a process in which the pressure does not change (i.e. isobaric) and in which the number of moles does not change.
If we start with a gas that is exerting a pressure of 1 atmosphere at
200 K, what pressure to you think it would exert if we heat it to 600 K?
If you said 3 atmospheres, you got it right. What you have recognized
is that the pressure exerted by a fixed amout (number of moles) of gas
confined to a fixed volume is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.
Mathematically, we can write P a T. As we have done twice before (sections 4.1 and 4.2) we wil make an equation out of this by writing P = kT. Here, the "constant" will actually depend on V and n since these do not appear in the equation. That is, k = f(V, n). The numerical value of k will depend on the size of tank we use, and on the amount (number of moles) of gas we put in it. Therefore, there is no point trying to calculate its value. As usual, we will simply agree to use this equation only for solving problems in which the volume remains constant (i.e. isochoric) and in which the number of moles of gas remains constant.
Before the process takes place (heating in this example, but it could just as well have been cooling), the gas is in a state of existance we will call "STATE 1". In this state, the pressure is symbolized by P_{1} and the Kelvin temperature by T_{1}. The process carried out on the gas transforms its state of existence to that which we call "STATE 2". Then the pressure is symbolized by P_{2} and the Kelvin temperatrue by T_{2}. Now we take our equation, P = kT, and re-arrange it to get P/T = k. We then apply this equation separately to STATE 1 and STATE 2.
STATE 1: P_{1} / T_{1} = k
STATE 2: P_{2} / T_{2} = k
Recall that k only depends on the volume and number of moles of gas. Neither of these has changed on going from STATE 1 to STATE 2, to the value of k is the same in each state. This means that
P_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} / T_{2}
This is the 2-point form of Gay-Lussac's (or Amonton's) Law. It it used to relate the pressures and temperatures in two states that are connected by a process that does not change the volume or number of moles.
P_{1} V_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} / T_{2}
Notice that the above equation will reduce to each of the three individual gas laws when the appropriate variable is held constant. For example, if the process is isothermal, temperature is constant. Then T_{1} = T_{2} = T. That is, we don't need a state label if the temperatures are the same in both states. Then the equation becomes
P_{1} V_{1} / T = P_{2} V_{2} / T
and multiplying by T on both cancels out the T and leaves
P_{1} V_{1} = P_{2} V_{2}
This is just the equation of Boyle's Law, which we had already seen applies when temperature is constant (section 4.1). In the same way, we could show that the combined gas law reduces to Charles' Law for an isobaric (constant pressure) process and to Gay-Lussac's (or Amonton's) Law for an isochoric (constant volume) process. There really is not any need to do complicated algebra to show this. Just cover up (or erase) the variable that is being held constant, and what remains is the equation for the relevant individual gas law.
The only thing required to remain constant in the combined gas law (in the form presented here) is the number of moles, since n does not appear in the equation. Actually, we could remove this restriction by writing it in the form
P_{1} V_{1} / n_{1 }T_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} / n_{2} T_{2}
but in General Chemistry, we are not likely to do calculations in which the number of moles of gas changes during the process, so the simpler form presented earlier (not containing n) will usually suffice.
Avogadro's Law states that the volume of a gas (at fixed temperature and pressure) is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. Mathematically, this can be expressed as V a n. This is a fairly obvious law. Consider what happens when you inflate a balloon. The more air you put in the balloon, the larger the volume becomes.
V a 1 / P (Boyle's Law)
V a T (Charles' Law)
V a n (Avogadro's Law)
If a single variable (V in this case) is proportional to several other variables, it is proportional to their product. This allows several individual proportionalities to be combined into a single proportionality. The above can be combined to give
V a n T / P
In this proportionality, all gas parameters are present, so when we make it into an equation, the constant of proportionality will be a true universal constant. It will not depend on anything. As usual, we will change the proportionality sign (a) to an equality sign (=) and multiply the right hand side by a constant. This time, we will call it R rather than k, to make our equation look like that presented in standard general chemistry textbooks.
V = R n T / P
We can clear the fraction on the right side by multiplying both sides by P. This gives
P V = n R T (Ideal Gas Law)
The fact that I wrote n R T this time instead of R n T has no mathematical consequence, since numbers can be multiplied in any order. This was done to make our equation coincide with that presented in general chemistry textbooks.
The value of R can be determined experimentally by simultaneously determining for a known amount (number of moles) of gas, its pressure, temperature and volume. Re-arranging the equation as
R = P V / n T
the measured values can be plugged into the equation to calculate R. The currently accepted value of R is as follows:
R = 0.0820584 L atm / K mol
The Ideal Gas Law differs from all the laws presented before it in that it applies to a one state problem. In using each of the other laws, we were considering a gas in a particular initial state ("STATE 1") that underwent some process that transformed it to some final state ("STATE 2"). In using the Ideal Gas Law, we will have a single state for the gas, in which we know all of the variables except one. That missing variable can be solved for algebraically.
Simple Ideal Gas Law problems will ask for the pressure, volume, or temperature to be solved for. The re-arrangements to use for these tasks are as follows:
P = n R T / V (to solve for pressure)
V = n R T / P (to solve for volume)
T = P V / n R (to solve for Kelvin temperature)
Sometimes, we will need to solve for the number of moles of gas. Usually, this will be done as part of a more elaborate problem, in which calculating the number of moles is not the end result, but merely a step on the way to the desired answer. When moles need to be calculated, the following re-arrangement is used:
n = P V / R T (to calculate the number of moles of gas)
Density is an elementary concept that is usually mentioned in the first chapter of general chemistry textbooks. An object's density is its mass divided by its volume.
d = m / V
Molecular weight is also a fairly simple concept to develop. When you learned the mole concept, you were taught that one mole weighs in grams what one molecule (at least on average -- if isotopes are a factor) weighs on the atomic mass scale. That is, units of molecular weight are either u/molecule or g/mole. Generally, the unit g/mole is more useful to us. These units suggest that we can calculate the molecular weight by dividing a substance's mass in grams by the number of moles it contains. That is,
MWT = m / n
where MWT stands for molecular weight, m is the mass in grams and n is the number of moles.
We shall now see how the above two simple equations can be combined with the Ideal Gas Law to produce some useful variations on a theme.
First, from the equation
MWT = m / n
solve for n to get
n = m / MWT
Then substitute this result into the Ideal Gas Law to get
P V = ( m / MWT ) R T
The fraction can be cleared by multiplying by MWT on both sides to get
P V (MWT) = m R T (Mass-Based Ideal Gas Law)
With this equation, the mass of a known gas (i.e. one for which we know the molecular weight) can be calculated directly, because the mass appears explicitly in the equation.
Starting from the Mass-Based Ideal Gas Law (derived in section 5.1.1)
P V (MWT) = m R T
Divide both sides by V to get
P (MWT) = (m / V) RT
Then recognizing that d = m / V, we can write
P (MWT) = d R T
(Density-Based Ideal Gas Law)
When more than one gas is present in a container, each gas is said to exert a partial pressure. The total pressure exerted by the gas mixture (the pressure we would measure with a mechanical pressure meter) is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each of the gases making up the mixture. That is,
P_{T} = P_{1} + P_{2} + . . . . .
where P_{T} is the total gas pressure, P_{1} is the partial pressure of gas 1, P_{2} is the partial pressure of gas 2, and so on. The sum extends over all the gases in the mixture.
Dalton's Law could be used to answer a question like the following:
While diffusion is easy to understand in a qualitative way, mathematical
calculations are extermely difficult because of the large number of collisions
that the molecules undergo as they mix. Effusion, like diffusion,
is related to molecular motion, but is much easier to describe mathematically.
Effusion
is the escape of a gas through a small hole, having a size similar
to the gas molecules themselves. While diffusion refers to a
bulk mixing of gases, effusion involves the escape of gas molecules essentially
one-by-one from the container.
In the above container, a gas molecule can escape if it is moving toward the hole. An individual gas molecule will usually have to undergo numerous collisions with the walls of the container, and with other gas molecules, before it happens to be moving in the right direction to allow it to pass through the hole. Because of the small size of the hole, only one molecule at at time (or at most just a few at a time), can pass through the hole. Effusion is therefore, a slow process. A large hole would allow the gas to escape from the container rapidly, but this would be bulk movement of gas, and not effusion.
In describing effusion mathematically, we usually consider the space outside the container to be a large volume of vacuum. With this assumption, it is not likely that a molecule will ever return to the container once it leaves, so we only need to consider the movement of gas molecules out of the hole. We will only have gas leaving the container, none entering.
The rate at which gas molecules escape from the container will be related to their speed. This in turn, will depend on two things: the temperature and the mass of the molecule. The higher the temperature, the faster, on average, the molecules are moving. And at a given temperature, the heavier the molecule is, the slower it moves. In comparing the effusion rates of two different gases, we usually compare them at the same temperature. This allows us to confine our attention to the mass of the molecule. Graham's Law of Effusion states that at a given temperature and pressure, the effusion rate of gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:
Effusion Rate a 1/Ömolecular weight
If we apply this equation to two different gases, which we will call gas 1 and gas 2, we can obtain the following equation for comparing the two gases:
E.R. 1 / E.R. 2 = Ö ( MWT 2 / MWT 1 )
Where E.R. is the effusion rate and MWT is the molecular weight. The labels 1 and 2 indicate which gas is being dealt with.
Since the time required for a gas to effuse will be inversely proportional to its effusion rate, we can also write an equation that lets us compare two gases on the basis of their effusion times:
E.T. 1 / E.T. 2 = Ö ( MWT 1 / MWT 2 )
This equation will allow us to answer questions like the following:
P_{1} V_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} -----solve-----> P_{2} = P_{1} ( V_{1} / V_{2} )
P_{2} = 1.997 atm ( 6.183 L / 4.208 L ) = 2.934 atm
P_{1} V_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} -----solve-----> V_{2} = V_{1} ( P_{1} / P_{2} )
V_{2} = 4.342 L ( 2.075 atm / 3.317 atm ) = 2.716 L
V_{1} / T_{1} = V_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> T_{2} = T_{1} ( V_{2} / V_{1} )
T_{2} = 288.35 K ( 9.023 L / 7.884 L ) = 330.01
K = 56.9 ^{o}C
V_{1} / T_{1} = V_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> V_{2} = V_{1} ( T_{2} / T_{1} )
V_{2} = 5.984 L ( 372.95 K/ 293.45 K ) = 7.605 L
P_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> T_{2} = T_{1} ( P_{2} / P_{1} )
T_{2} = 292.85 K ( 9.406 atm / 7.532 atm ) = 365.71
K = 92.6 ^{o}C
P_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> P_{2} = P_{1} ( T_{2} / T_{1} )
P_{2} = 7.214 atm ( 360.45 K / 291.65 K ) = 8.916 atm
P_{1} V_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> V_{2} = V_{1} ( P_{1} / P_{2} ) ( T_{2} / T_{1} )
V_{2} = 6.184 L (2.225 atm / 4.806 atm ) ( 364.95 K /
294.55 K ) = 3.547 L
P_{1} V_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> P_{2} = P_{1} ( V_{1} / V_{2} ) ( T_{2} / T_{1} )
P_{2} = 2.046 atm ( 9.112 L / 4.543 L ) ( 367.35 K /
295.75 K ) = 5.097 atm
P_{1} V_{1} / T_{1} = P_{2} V_{2} / T_{2} -----solve-----> T_{2} = T_{1} ( P_{2} / P_{1} ) ( V_{2} / V_{1} )
T_{2} = 288.55 K ( 8.071 atm / 3.858 atm ) ( 4.178 L / 6.947 L ) = 363.04 K = 89.9 ^{o}C
METHOD 1:
7.898 g CH_{4} ( 1 mol CH_{4} / 16.04 g CH_{4} ) = 0.4923 mol CH_{4}
P V = n R T -----solve-----> P = n R T / V
P = 0.4923 mol (0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 301.65 K ) / 5.943 L
P = 2.050 atm
METHOD 2:
P V (MWT) = m R T -----solve-----> P = m R T / ( V ^{.} MWT )
P = 7.898 g (0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) (301.65 K ) / ( 5.943 L ^{.} 16.04 g / mol )
P = 2.050 atm
Note: numbers shown in the calculations have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD 1:
8.853 g O_{2} ( 1 mol O_{2} / 32.00 g O_{2} ) = 0.2767 mol O_{2}
P V = n R T -----solve-----> V = n R T / P
V = 0.2767 mol (0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 296.05 K ) / 4.957 atm
V = 1.356 L
METHOD 2:
P V (MWT) = m R T -----solve-----> V = m R T / ( P ^{.} MWT )
V = 8.853 g (0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) (296.05 K ) / ( 4.957 atm ^{.} 32.00 g / mol )
V = 1.356 L
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD 1:
8.782 g O_{2} ( 1 mol O_{2} / 32.00 g O_{2} ) = 0.2744 mol O_{2}
P V = n R T -----solve-----> T = P V / ( n R )
T = 1.353 atm (5.821 L ) / ( 0.2744 mol ^{.} 0.0820584 L atm / K mol )
T = 349.71 K = 76.6 ^{o}C
METHOD 2:
P V (MWT) = m R T -----solve-----> T = P V (MWT) / m R
T = 1.353 atm ( 5.821 L ) ( 32.00 g / mol ) / ( 8.782 g ^{.} 0.0820584 L atm / K mol )
T = 349.71 K = 76.6 ^{o}C
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD 1:
P V = n R T -----solve-----> n = P V / ( R T )
n = 4.973 atm ( 9.582 L ) / ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ^{.} 304.95 K )
n = 1.904 mol
1.904 mol N_{2} ( 28.01 g N_{2} / mol N_{2} ) = 53.34 g N_{2}
METHOD 2:
P V (MWT) = m R T -----solve-----> m = P V (MWT) / ( R T )
m = 4.973 atm ( 9.582 L ) ( 28.01 g / mol ) / ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ^{.} 304.95 )
m = 53.34 g
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD 1:
Assume a volume of 1L.
P V = n R T -----solve-----> n = P V / ( R T )
n = 8.175 atm ( 1 L ) / ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ^{.} 299.45 K )
n = 0.3327 mol
0.3327 mol CH_{4} ( 16.04 g CH_{4} / 1 mol CH_{4} ) = 5.337 g CH_{4}
d = m / V = 5.337 g / 1 L = 5.337 g / L
METHOD 2:
P (MWT) = d R T -----solve-----> d = P (MWT) / ( R T )
d = 8.175 atm ( 16.04 g / mol ) / ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ^{.} 299.45 K )
d = 5.337 g / L
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD 1:
Assume a volume of 1 L. The mass of gas in this volume will be 3.429 g, as shown below:
3.429 g / L ( 1 L ) = 3.429 g
P V = n R T -----solve-----> n = P V / ( R T )
n = 2.593 atm ( 1 L ) / ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ^{.} 294.85 K )
n = 0.1072 mol
MWT = m / n = 3.429 g / 0.1072 mol = 32.00 g / mol
METHOD 2:
P (MWT) = d R T -----solve-----> MWT = d R T / P
MWT = ( 3.429 g / L ) ( 0.08205783 L atm / K mol ) ( 294.85 K ) / 2.593 atm
MWT = 32.00 g / mol
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry out the calculations.
METHOD:
Calculate the moles of each gas, then calculate the (partial) pressure of each gas in the usual way. A gas in a mixture exerts the same pressure as it would exert if it were alone in the container.
4.973 g N_{2} ( 1 mol N_{2} / 28.01 g N_{2} ) = 0.1775 mol N_{2}
6.851 g O_{2} ( 1 mol O_{2} / 32.00 g O_{2} ) = 0.2141 mol O_{2}
P V = n R T -----solve-----> P = n R T / V
For N_{2} : P = 0.1775 mol ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 301.55 K ) / 7.163 L
P = 0.6133 atm
For O_{2} : P = 0.2141 mol ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 301.55 K ) / 7.163 L
P = 0.7396 atm
P_{TOTAL} = 0.6133 atm + 0.7396 atm = 1.3529 atm
You can also calculate the total gas pressure from the total gas moles:
Total moles = 0.1775 mol + 0.2141 = 0.3916 mol
P = 0.3916 mol ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 301.55 K ) / 7.163 L
P = 1.3529 atm
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry out the calculations.
METHOD:
We will use the equation
E.T. 1 / E.T. 2 = Ö ( MWT 1 / MWT 2 )
Let's let NH_{3} be gas 1 and CO_{2} be gas 2. This will put the quantity we are trying to solve for in the numerator. This is not a requirement, but solving for a numerator quantity tends to be easier and less error-prone than solving for a denominator quantity. Making the equation specific to our particular problem, we have
E.T. NH_{3} / E.T. CO_{2} = Ö ( MWT NH_{3} / MWT CO_{2} )
Solving this for E.T. NH_{3} we have
E.T. NH_{3} = ( E.T. CO_{2} ) Ö (MWT NH_{3} / MWT CO_{2} )
and substituting values we have
E.T. NH_{3} = 50.76 min Ö ( (17.03 g / mol ) / ( 44.01 g / mol ) )
E.T. NH_{3} = 31.58 min
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
METHOD:
We will use the equation
E.T. 1 / E.T. 2 = Ö ( MWT 1 / MWT 2 )
Let's let the unknown gas be gas 1 and helium be gas 2. This will place the variable being solved for in the numerator, which is preferred (see previous problem). Making the equation specific to our particular problem, we have
E.T. unknown / E.T. He = Ö ( MWT unknown / MWT He )
Squaring both sides of the equation (and writing the variable being solved for one the left hand side this time, we have
MWT unknown / MWT He = ( E.T. unknown / E.T. He )^{2}
Then multiplying both sides by MWT He gives
MWT unknown = MWT He ( E.T. unknown / E.T. He )^{2}
and substituting the numerical values into this equation gives
MWT unknown = ( 4.0026 g / mol ) ( 60.0 min / 30.0 min )^{2}
MWT unknown = 16.0 g / mol
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry out the calculations.
METHOD:
First, we will need to come up with a balanced equation for the reaction so we can do a stoichiometric calculation of the number of moles of oyxgen we can produce. Then we can use the Ideal Gas Law to calculate the volume that should be occupied by this oxygen.
potassium chlorate ----------> potassium chloride + oxygen
KClO_{3}(s) ----------> O_{2}(g) + KCl(s) (unbalanced)
2KClO_{3}(s) ----------> 3O_{2}(g) + 2KCl(s) (balanced)
0.500 g KClO_{3} ( 1 mol KClO_{3} / 122.5 g KClO_{3} ) ( 3 mol O_{2} / 2 mol KClO_{3} ) = 0.006120 mol O_{2}
P V = n R T ----solve-----> V = n R T / P
STP conditions are 0 ^{o}C (which is 273.15 K) and 1 atm.
V = 0.006120 mol ( 0.0820584 L atm / K mol ) ( 273.15 K ) / 1 atm
V = 0.137 L
0.137 L ( 1 mL / 1 x 10^{-3} L ) = 137 mL
Note: numbers shown in the calculation have been rounded
off to conserve space, but the full unrounded values were used to carry
out the calculations.
Last update: Friday December 1, 2000